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Mysore Modernity, Artistic Nationalism and the art of K.Venkatappa – International Seminar.

November 21, 2016


Curated by Pushpamala N. to mark 20 years of Somberikatte

mysore-modernity-artistic-nationalism-the-art-of-k-venkatappa-international-seminar-at-venkatappa-art-gallery-and-ngma-bengaluruK Venkatappa ( 1886-1965) is a seminal figure in early modern Indian art. In Karnataka, he is the first modern artist in the region. However, besides some essays and monographs on him mentioned below in the bibliography, there has been no proper critical evaluation or major art historical study on him and his context. He is only a minor figure in the dominant art
history of the country, which to my mind is the history of the Gangetic plain. By studying a figure – who is both national in spirit while choosing to work in the region; cosmopolitan, and yet rooted in a context; rooted, yet fighting tooth and nail every inch of way to maintain his artistic independence and integrity, (both within feudal patronage as well as the market) –
we hope to make more complex the history of early modern art, and therefore, of early modernity in India.

The princely state of Mysore, (along with Baroda) was seen as a “model ” and a “modern state” under the reign of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV ( 1894- 1940) . Sayaji Rao Gaekwad III of Baroda and Krishna Raja Wodeyar attacked Imperial claims to modernity and claimed it for themselves with ‘good governance’, by aggressively pursuing it through economic and social reforms and western education. Sayaji Rao observes that ideas of any origin can be modified in the Indian milieu to become distinctly Indian in nature. Mysore and Baroda, as princely states, thought of themselves as ‘real Indian territories’ and manipulated British ideas to reproduce them on nationalistic lines. Mysore started its reforms in the early 20th century and in the 1920s, was lauded as the most progressive state by both the British and the Nationalists. “Concepts of modernity which emerged out of Enlightenment rationalism and the new found faith in scientific processes, were premised upon the notion that all societies in the world were progressing in one direction, and that this progress was towards some form of industrial democratic capitalism.“ Sir M. Vishweshwarayya, Dewan of Mysore, sets up several industries and dams under a Swadeshi plan. The king funds the establishment of the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, ,promoted by J N Tata of Bombay, in 1909, inviting C V Raman to head it, which made Bangalore the science capital of India. The Mysore University is established in 1917 as a modern ‘counter’ to the ‘old-fashioned’, ‘backward’ and colonial Madras University, thereby asserting the right of Indians to control knowledge production. (The right to knowledge was central to the colonial project as expressed by Macaulay and Maine.) In the act of decolonizing the University, the instrument of modernization, the Mysore Maharaja decolonizes modernity itself, so producing an ‘Indian modern’. The princely states, which represented the ‘fossilized past’ to the British by which they defined their own modern-ness, undermined colonialism by becoming sites of ‘native modernity’. (from Manu Bhagwan, Sovereign States, OUP)

The seminar will see Venkatappa as an archetypal figure of early modernism in India. An eccentric and colourful character, his life embodies many interesting dilemmas and contradictions of great interest to us today. Venkatappa offers a lens through which the history of early modernism (artistic form) and modernity (sociological phenomenon) can be critically revisited. We see this as an important art historical and archival initiative. This is also the first major and international seminar on any artist or on the modern period in Karnataka, and the first ever seminar on Venkatappa.
Venkatappa has a fascinating biography where he moves from being an artisan painter in the employ of the king to becoming a nationalist cosmopolitan modern artist. The seminar will look at the modernizing history of the progressive Mysore State; his artisanal background as a descendent of the Chitrakara community of traditional palace painters, and his early studies in the Chamarajendra Technical Institute in Mysore in the Western academic style. It will explore the trajectory of his journey to the Madras College of Art where he meets E B Havell, and then to the capital of ‘Artistic Nationalism’, Calcutta, where goes to study at the Calcutta School of Art under Abanindranath Tagore, on a scholarship by the Maharaja. He spends several years there ( from 1909 to 1916) and becomes one of the earliest students of Abanindranath Tagore, at the time when Tagore was exploring certain ideas of a Swadeshi and Pan-Asian art both in his writings and his art practice. In the context of the nationalist
reinterpretation of traditional aesthetics, Venkatappa is assigned a key role; he is appreciated for his fine skills, which come from his traditional artisanal background, and is asked to do the illustrations along with Nandalal Bose for Abanindranath’s treatise on Indian aesthetics – Shadanga – or the Six Limbs of Indian Art. (These paintings are in the
Venkatappa Art Gallery in Bangalore). During those years, he also goes to Ajanta with Nandalal Bose and others to help Lady Herringham copy the Ajanta frescoes. Ajanta is an important marker on the nationalist art map of India, seen as one of the lodestones of our grand tradition.

Venkatappa comes back to Mysore more of a Bengali cosmopolitan artist than a Mysorean. No wonder he is always at odds with his contemporary artists. He hardly mentions them in his diaries. Instead, he thinks of himself as an independent intellectual artist and cultivates the company of intellectuals: philosophers like M Hiriyanna and S Radhakrishnan, the Orientalist scholars, and writers like Kuvempu, who all taught in Mysore University, and has interesting conversations with physicist C V Raman in Bangalore. Perhaps this exposure to scientific ideas may have led him to move away from the idealism of the Bengal style and an empirical study of nature, attested by his landscape paintings from this period. Yet, he has his own dilemmas and contradictions in his work, which fluctuates between various styles and ideas, western and orientalist, romantic and magic realist.

Venkatappa’s paintings were predominantly in watercolor, in contrast to a popular movement in the Mysore court towards oils following the Ravi Varma influence. Ravi Varma had come to Mysore on the invitation of the Maharaja, for several short periods in 1902, 1903, 1904 and 1905. Patronage of art was also a sign of modernity, as well as a support for native culture to flourish. Ravi Varma was given the “Gun House” a sprawling hotel near the palace for his studio and treated as a royal guest, and provided with his own kitchen, staff and assistants. K. Venkatappa was a young boy in these years. There is no mention of Ravi Varma in Venkatappa’s copious diaries it seems, but critic G. Venkatachalam writes that Venkatappa had seen Ravi Varma working in the palace as a young boy.

Venkatappa was an eccentric, “distancing himself from Abanindranath Tagore and his other students by retreating to the Mysore court, but also resisting his position as a simple court artisan by rejecting commissions that constrained his style and did not match his expected compensation; rejecting salaried positions tying him to the palace or other institutions and painting in a modern style.” He “made a self-conscious attempt to assume the position of a distracted genius, indifferent to the mundane world of praise and profit.” This, “along with his interest in studying the veena – when he largely abandoned painting, kept him at a distance from the art world until his discovery by James Cousins in the 1920s”.

Venkatappa’s Ooty watercolours of 1926 are some of his finest works, appreciated by Mahatma Gandhi when he visited Mysore, which he lauded later in his journal Young India.
Venkatappa even started an art school in 1926 in Bangalore after which he refused to sell his work. Yet, soon after, he accepted an invitation to create a series of plaster of Paris basreliefs
for the Mysore Palace. But after the death of Krishna Raja Wodeyar who had given him the commission, the new king Jayachamarajendra terminated the order in 1940. Furious, Venkatappa moved to Bangalore and started litigation against the king for his payments. The set of bas- reliefs done in a heavily muscular Western style, never went to the palace and are now in the Venkatappa Art Gallery in Bangalore.

Venkatappa has a history of litigation sparing neither his neighbours, the press nor the king. He was a purist who jealously guarded his art and his reputation. Extremely touchy, he was an austere bachelor and stickler for rules. On the other hand, his diaries reveal that he saw three Hollywood films a week, which also indicates that he rather revelled in “low” pleasures! When teased about his bachelorhood he replies that “he is wedded to his art, and art is a jealous mistress”. No romantic female interest seems to be mentioned in the diaries, and it could be suspected that he was a believer in Ramakrishna as he spent many evenings wandering in Dakshinapuram in his Calcutta days, besides other religious sites in North India.

Always a rebel, his life has many piquant resonances raising many questions for us today, not only about his biography, but even on the early history of modernity and modernism in India. Why a Seminar on Venkatappa is relevant today The lost history of Venkatappa is in a sense, a lost history of early modernism in Karnataka and a lost chapter, or gap, in the history of Indian art. This strange emptiness, this lack of substance, creates a vacuum in our thoughts. His history is peculiarly fragmented. While he appears as an artistic player as a student of Abanindranath Tagore in the scholarly works of Partha Mitter , R Sivakumar and Tapati Guha Thakurta in reference to the Bengal school and early Nationalist art, his biography by S K Ramachandra Rao, the edited diaries by KV Subramanyam in Kannada, and Janaki Nair’s path breaking work concentrate on his Mysore avatar. There is not much work in connecting the different phases of his life. His Bengal and Mysore avatars hardly meet. There is no research, or even a wikipedia entry for instance on the important Chamarajendra Technical Institute where he studied, which produced many leading artists and institution builders of the state. There is no substantial scholarly research
on 20th century Karnataka art. It is all very hazy. The only publications available for study are monographs of individual artists brought out by the Akademis, which treat each artist as an island, and are indeed, superficial hagiographies.

For artists in Karnataka, it is as if we sprang up from nothingness to jump into the national art scene in the 1980s. Modern art history appears to be always located elsewhere. This gap, this vacuum, even has consequences in government policies and the public imagination. Our situation is to be seen against the backdrop of the large body of critical writing and publications on modern Kannada literature. There, movements and figures from the 19th century onwards have been published, studied and debated, to form a rich tapestry and legacy for students to study, for the public to read, and writers to be inspired by, (or rebel against). It is as if visual art, in spite of the vibrant art scene in the state for many decades, does not exist in the popular imagination. So the culture of the state becomes a lopsidedly literary culture, politically charged with the needs of the linguistic state, which has its dangers in language nationalism and parochialism. The modern visual arts in Karnataka,
whether art or architecture, (or n fact, even music and dance ) are barely thought about as they are not based on the state language , and this results in government neglect of institutions and patronage in policy and practice and lack of understanding of the visual.
Research, archiving and documentation are important means to bring these histories to the fore. The seminar will attempt, precisely, to create this rich tapestry of research, debate and discourse about the art and life of Venkatappa, situating him in the currents of his time. It will look at the modernizing policies of the progressive Mysore government, their patronage of
art, the palace artists, the Chamarajendra Technical Institute where the artist first studied, the influence of Ravi Varma ( and Venkatappa’s rejection of it) and the several British artists who were around in that area for a hundred years, and the artist’ s teachers and contemporaries. It will have papers on Indian artistic nationalism and the Bengal Renaissance, looking at the period of Venkatappa’s stay, and trace its deep influence and his re-negotiation of it later. The seminar will study the different bodies of Venkatappa’s work, their materials, their aesthetic innovations and flaws and contradictions. Venkatappa’s eccentricities, austerities and interests will be looked at. It will study his influence- on future generations. This seminar
will be the first major attempt to seriously historicize Karnataka modern art – focusing on the figure of K Venkatappa –
engaging the early modern period via our current location in history.

This is indeed a historical moment to have a seminar on Venkatappa, when Karnataka artists have been protesting against the state government’s unprecedented move to give away in adoption the Venkatappa Art Gallery – with its valuable collections of Karnataka modern art (built around Venkatappa’s work donated by his family) and its democratic open galleries – to the family trust of an art dealer to rebuild and house his personal collection. Artistic heritage is seen as mere tourism, as a product to be marketed, to be administered by the businessmen and marketing consultants who form these “expert” panels set up by the government. Artists who create the art are treated with utter contempt. It is a crisis of our times. It is time that art making be seen as central to any society, and a greater critical interest in our artistic and intellectual heritage as well as contemporary work is developed, as a rich resource for our understanding of life, and for a future vision.
– Pushpamala N 2016

Biographies of the Speakers
In Order of Appearance
ABHISHEK HAZRA is a visual artist whose close yet idiosyncratic study of the historiography of science has led him to explore various practices of knowledge production and dispersion. Hazra uses text, video, online interventions, performance and prints that often draw from speculative scenarios. Abhishek has exhibited widely including Science Gallery, Dublin, Kunstmuseum Bern, Bose Pacia, New York, MAXXI Museum, Rome, Kiran Nadar Museum, Delhi, and OCAD, Toronto. He has been an artist-in-residence in various prominent residences including Gasworks, London, Art Omi, New York and SymbioticA, Centre of Excellence in Biological Arts, Perth. Abhishek has been the recipient of multiple awards including the 2011 Sanskriti Award for Visual Art. He is currently a faculty at the Srishti Institute of Art, Design and Technology, Bangalore.

PARTHA MITTER (Honorary D.Lit. Courtauld Institute, London), is Emeritus Professor Art History, University of Sussex. He has been a Junior Research Fellow, Churchill College, Cambridge, Open Research Fellow of Clare Hall, Cambridge; Mellon Fellow, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton; Member, Getty Research Institute LA; Fellow, Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Mass, Fellow, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC; He was also Radhakrishnan Memorial Lecturer at All Souls College, Oxford. Books include Much Maligned Monsters: History of European Reactions to Indian Art, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1977; Art and Nationalism in Colonial India 1850-1922, Cambridge University Press, 1994, Indian Art, Oxford University Press, 2002; The Triumph of Modernism: India’s Artists and the Avant-Garde 1922-1947, Reaktion Books 2007. At present he is working on the global turn of modernism, post-modernism and late modernism.

CHANDAN GOWDA is Professor, School of Development, Azim Premji University, Bengaluru. He has recently edited Theatres of Democracy: Selected Essays of Shiv
Visvanathan (HarperCollins, 2016) and translated Bara, a novella by UR Ananthamurthy (Oxford University Press, 2016). He has also directed Sahitya Sahavasa (In the Company of Literature), a series of video lectures of UR Ananthamurthy on Kannada writers which were telecast on Doordarshan in 2014. He writes a weekly column on culture and politics in Bangalore Mirror. He is presently completing a book on the cultural politics of development in old Mysore state.

R H KULKARNI Born in small village Nilogal in vicinity of Badami. Early education at his native place. Joined CAVA Mysore for BFA course in 1984, completed course with Specialization in Art History in 1989. 1990-92. MVA in Art History at Department of Art History, Faculty of Fine Arts. Developed interest in research and got UGC fellowship in Art History for PhD programme. PhD degree from Mysore University in 2003, for thesis on Preand Early Chalukya Art in Karnataka.Worked as lecturer in Art History at CAVA Mysore until 2007 June. From 2007 , working as Professor of Art History in College of Fine Arts, CKP,
Bangalore. Published Book on Pre- and Early Chalukya art. 2010, a monograph on Yusuf Arakkal in 2011, research papers on Karnataka Sculptures, Paintings-Murals, Mysore Mural and Traditional painting school. Interested in exploring Pre- Independence Indian Art. Presently co-editing Prof. Ratan Parimoo Felicitation Volume.

R SIVAKUMAR is an art historian and curator. He has written extensively on modern Indian art and is the author of over 15 books including Santiniketan: The Making of a Contextual Modernism, The Paintings of Abanindranath Tagore, Ramkinkar Baij and the four volume Rabindra Chitravali. He has also curated several exhibitions including the retrospectives of K.G. Subramanyan and The Last Harvest: Paintings of Rabindranth which was shown at nine major museums across the world. He is professor of Art History at Visva Bharati in Santiniketan.

PARUL DAVE MUKHERJI is a professor and former dean (2006-2013) at the School of Arts and Aesthetics, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India. She holds a PhD in Indology from Oxford University. Earlier, she taught at the Department of Art History and Aesthetics, Faculty of Fine Arts, M S University in Baroda. Her recent publications include “Popular Festivals, Populist Visual Culture and Modi Masks” in Democratic culture: historical and philosophical essays, ed. Akeel Bilgrami, New Delhi: Routledge, 2011; InFluxContemporary Art in Asia, (co-edited) New Delhi, Sage, 2013; “Art History and Its Discontents in Global Times” in Art History in the Wake of the Global Turn, eds. Jill H Cassid and Aruna D’Souza, Massachusetts: Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, 2014; Arts and Aesthetics in a Globalizing World, co-edited with Ramindar Kaur, London: Bloomsbury, 2014; Ebrahim Alkazi: Directing Art (Ed.), Ahmedabad: Mapin, 2016. Her forthcoming volume co-edited with Partha Mitter and Rakhee Balaram is entitled 20th Century Indian Art, Skira, 2016.

R NANDAKUMAR is an art historian and culture critic. Apart from the visual arts which is his home discipline, cultural musicology is a major area of his research interest. He has taught art history in various Fine Arts colleges and has been Professor and Head of the Department of Visual Arts, Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA), New Delhi. Formerly a Fellow of the Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla, he has currently been Senior Nehru Fellow at Teen Murti Bhawan, New Delhi. His critique of the tantric style published in Malayalam in the early eighties is one of the early attempts to look at the historical premises of the ideology of Indianness and to problematise the tradition/modernity binary in the context of art and nationalism. This was followed by his several papers on Raja Ravi Varma which were widely cited in art historical circles. His extensive application of Lacanian concepts to the study of a contemporary artist’s oeuvre is among the very few such art historical attempts.

SHUKLA SAWANT is a visual artist and is currently Professor of Visual Studies at the School of Arts and Aesthetics, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. After graduating in painting from the College of Art, New Delhi she specialized in printmaking at the Ecole Des Beaux Arts, Paris and later went to the Slade School of Art and center for theoretical studies, London on a Commonwealth grant. She recently completed her PhD from JNU on landscape painting in India. Shukla has ten solo shows to her credit and has published various catalogue essays and contributed chapters in books on contemporary Indian Art. She was a
working group member of Khoj International artists’ Association for seven years and taught at the Fine Arts department of Jamia Millia Islamia (1989-2001) before joining JNU. She has delivered lectures at the NGMA, New Delhi, Bhau Daji Lad museum, Mumbai, University of Heidelberg, New School, New York and Brandeis University. She has also participated in numerous residencies and workshops.
SRAJANA KAIKINI is currently pursuing her PhD at the Manipal Centre for Philosophy and Humanities, Manipal University, India. She holds a Masters in Arts and Aesthetics from Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi and is a graduate in architecture. She was part of de Appel’s Curatorial Programme 2012-13, Amsterdam and The Foundation of Indian Contemporary Art Research Fellow 2013-14. Her research interests include philosophy of art, curatorial studies, process philosophy and philosophy of language and image. Her latest curatorial research titled Vectors of Kinship is part of the infracuratorial Platform at the 11th
Shanghai Biennale 2016. SURESH JAYARAM Artist, art historian, arts administrator and curator from Bangalore. He is the Founder, Director of Visual Art Collective/1.Shanthiroad Studio, an international artist’s residency and alternative art space in Bangalore, India. He is currently involved in art
practice, urban mapping, archiving, curation and arts education. His keen interest in environmental and urban developmental issues influences his work. He taught Art History at Karnataka Chitrakala Parishat, the College of Fine Arts in Bangalore and later went on to become the Dean from 2005-2007. He obtained his BFA in painting from the College of Fine Arts, Karnataka Chitrakala Parishat 1990 and MFA from M.S.University, Baroda in 1992 in Art Criticism. Some of his significant work has included- 2012- Curator for Colombo Art Biennale 2012, Colombo, Sri Lanka 2011- Research, curated exhibition and compiled monograph for the ‘Krumbiegel Project’ -A public history/art project that included research, documentation and exhibition that looked at the life of Gustav Herman rumbiegel a German horticulturist and urban planner of significance in South India.

PUSHPAMALA N has been called “the most entertaining artist-iconoclast of contemporary Indian art”. In her sharp and witty work as a photo- and video- performance artist, sculptor, writer, curator and provocateur, she is known for her strong feminist work and for her rejection of authenticity and embracing of multiple realities. As one of the pioneers of conceptual art in India and a leading figure in the feminist experiments in subject, material and language, her inventive work in sculpture, conceptual photography, video and performance have had a deep influence on art practice in India. She exhibits and lectures
widely in India and abroad. In 1996 she created a fictional institution “Somberikatte” or “Idler’s Platform” as a space for debate and discourse. She lives in Bangalore.

AJAY SINHA is Professor of Art History, Asian Studies, and Film Studies at Mount Holyoke College, U.S.A. His research interests span the history of ancient religious architecture, as well as modern and contemporary art, photography and film in India, and global modernism. Publications include Imagining Architects: Creativity in Indian Temple Architecture (2000), and a volume of essays on Indian film, co-edited with Raminder Kaur, titled Bollyworld: Popular Indian Cinema through a Transnational Lens (2005). His current research project traces a record of cross-cultural encounters between the two separate
worlds of India and the U.S.A. in a set of 100 photographs of an Indian dancer, Ram Gopal, taken by an American photographer, Carl Van Vechten, in New York City in 1938.

MAMTA SAGAR is an academic, poet, playwright and translator from Bangalore. She is a recipient of the Charles Wallace India Trust Translation Fellowship 2015. Mamta has been part of international poetry translation workshops like Poets Translating Poets and Literature Across Frontiers. She has been part of ‘Melding Voices’, a collaborative Poetry Project with poets based in the UK. Mamta’s poems and plays are taught at Universities in India and abroad. She visited Belgrade as ‘Poet in Residence’ with Auropolis. She has collaborated/performed in ‘MOTHERLAND’, with artist N.Pushpamala (India), on the ‘Emily
Dickenson project’ with Janet and Jennifer (Australia), with poets Marjorie Evasco
(Philippines) and Que Mai (Vietnam) and musicians Manja Ristic, Igor Stangliczky and Marko Jevtić (Belgrade) and presently with Vasu Dixit, musician from band Swaratma. Dr. Mamta Sagar has a Ph.D. in Comparative Literature from University of Hyderabad and her thesis is titled , ‘Gender, Patriarchy and Resistance: Contemporary Women’s Poetry in Kannada and Hindi (1980-2000)’. Mamta teaches creative writing at Srishti Institute for Art, Design and Technology and lives in Bangalore.

International Conference
25 26 27 November 2016
Venkatappa Art Gallery & NGMA Bengaluru

5.30 PM – 7 PM

5.30 PM Welcome Address
6.00 PM Abhishek Hazra / Artist / Shrishti School of Art/ Bengaluru
A South-Easterly Approach to the Developing Cold Front
A Gallery Tour / Performance – Duration: Half an Hour
10 AM- 6 PM

10.00 AM Welcome Address and Introduction
10.30 AM Partha Mitter / Prof. Emeritus / Sussex Univ / UK
Keynote Lecture: The Creation of an Alternative Regional Avant-garde:
Rabindranath Tagore, Okakura Tenshin and Pan-Asianism
11.15 am Tea Break

11.30 AM Chandan Gowda Two or Three Things about Mysore State
12.00 PM R H Kulkarni Kalatapaswi K. Venkatappa – Lives of an Artist Moderator / Shukla Sawant
1.30 PM Lunch Break
3.00 PM R Sivakumar Venkatappa: The Calcutta Interlude
3.30 PM Parul Dave Mukherji Shadanga’s Aesthetic Division of Labour: Abanindranath Tagore and Venkatappa’s Picturing the Past for the Nation Moderator / Partha Mitter
4.30 PM Tea Break
4.45 PM R Nandakumar / Art Education, Vocation and Patronage in Early Modern India: Raja Ravi Varma and K. Venkatappa
Moderator / R H Kulkarni
10 AM- 6 PM
10.00 AM Shukla Sawant The Long Exposure: Painting and Photography in Early Twentieth Century Mysore
10.30 AM Srajana Kaikini How is the Leaf Green? Why is the Sky Blue? The Botanical Studies of K. Venkatappa Moderator / Ajay Sinha
11.15 AM Tea Break

11.30 AM Suresh Jayaram The Language of Line: K Venkatappa and K K Hebbar
12.00 PM Pushpamala N. Artist as Virile Genius? Speculations around Venkatappa’s Bas- Reliefs Moderator / Parul Dave Mukherji
1.30 PM Lunch Break

3.00 PM Ajay Sinha “Mysore Modern” in American Photographs
3.30 PM Mamta Sagar Validating Romanticism: Ku Vem Pu and Venkatappa ( will be presented by Dr. Reshma Ramesh) Moderator / Belinder Dhanoa
The Seminar is curated by Pushpamala N. to mark 20 years of Somberikatte

Register here:

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